It implies the suspension of a state government and the imposition of direct rule of the Centre.
It is also known as a ‘State Emergency’ or ‘Constitutional Emergency’.
The SC in the Bommai case 1994 enlisted the situations where the exercise of power under Article 356 could be used.
One such situation is that of the ‘Hung Assembly’, i.e. where after general elections to the assembly, no party secures a majority.
The President’s rule is imposed through the invocation of Article 356 of the Constitution by the
President on the advice of the Union Council of Ministers (executive).
If the President, upon receipt of the report from the Governor of the State or otherwise, is satisfied
that a situation has arisen in which the government of the State cannot be carried on in accordance
with the provisions of the Constitution.
Parliamentary Approval and Duration:
1. A proclamation imposing President’s Rule must be approved by both the Houses of
2. Parliament within two months from the date of its issue.
3. The approval takes place through a simple majority in either House, that is, a majority of the
members of the House present and voting.
4. Initially valid for six months, the President’s Rule can be extended for a maximum period of
three years with the approval of the Parliament, every six months.