Different Types of Soils in India

The soil is the major economic and natural resources. The soil word is derived from the Latin word known as the Solum which means the earthy substance required for developing the plants. It is the combination of the organic and the rock material of weathered which is present at the top substance of the earth. So the soil is the most precious resource in India. Soils in India differ in structure and composition. A massive number of Indian agriculture only depends upon the quality of the soil. India is one of the popular and well-known countries and this country has many witnesses, climatic and other natural circumstances. There are many different types of soil in India. Below you can get each and every types of soil with a brief explanation.

The Alluvial soils are formed by the sediments deposition by the rivers, glaciers, winds and sea waves. This type of soil is rich in fertile and humus. In India, alluvial soils are formed in the Great Northern Plains, Ganga Brahmaputra plains, Coastal Plains and then in the river valleys. Some mountain regions and plateau are also found with the alluvial oil. Every year this type of the soils is transformed.

In the Ganga plain, there are two types of the Alluvium. They are old and new alluviums. The old alluviums are sticky and clayey which is in a darker color. But the new alluviums soils are in light color and occur in the floodplains and deltas.  When compare to the old alluviums, the new alluviums soils are best and very fertile. The Alluvial is known as the best soil in India for its rich harvest and high fertility. The crops grown in this soil are wheat, sugarcane, rice, jute, cotton and much more.

  • Black soils

The Black soils are made up of the lava-flow and volcanic rocks. This soil is also called as the regular soils. It is clay when becomes extremely sticky when wet. They have especially high clay content. It has the good worth of potassium, calcium, and magnesium but has a low amount of nitrogen. It is usually found in the Deccan Plateau of Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Andhra and Madhya Pradesh. This type of soil is especially suited in the cotton cultivation. The crops grown in this soil are wheat, sugarcane, cotton, tobacco, rice, and groundnut.

  • Red soils

Red soils are another type of soils in India. This soil is derived from the early metamorphic rocks of the Deccan Plateau. The soil redness is due to flattening composition. This soil has a high amount of the iron and so it is best for cultivation such as the red gram, castor seeds, green gram, millets, pulses and much more. These soils have more fertile and almost cover whole of Tamil Nadu, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and other parts of Orissa. This is the best soil for the fertilizers and irrigation.

  • Mountain soil

This is another type of soils in India. These soils are found in the hill region which is covered by the forests. The mountains soil regions are very suitable for soil erosion. It has the thin in surface and not extremely fertile. But it has the high content of humus. This soil is found in the region of Jammu and Kashmir, Sikkim, Himachal Pradesh, Assam and much more. The uniqueness of this soil is clear by the natural substance which it takes from the growth of the forest. The crops grown in the mountain soil are maize, wheat, fruits, and barley. As well as it is especially suitable for producing crops like coffee, tea, tropical fruits, and spices in the state of Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.

  • Laterite Soil

This kind of soil is clayey which is formed under the high temperature and rainfall. This type of soil is formed due to the intense leakage and well urbanized on the hills and uplands. They are usually found in tropical parts of India such as Kerala, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, and hilly areas of Orissa and Assam. The color of this soil normally varies from red to reddish yellow. The reddish-yellow occurs due to the occurrence of iron oxides. It is poor in minerals and nitrogen. The crops grown in the Laterite soils are coconut, team, nuts, coffee and much more.

  • Desert soil

This is another type of soils and found in regions which have the low rainfall. It is mostly found in desert areas of tropical and temperate zones. The surface of this soil is sandy. This type of soil has high phosphate content which is similar to the alluvial soils. These are mainly found in the Rajasthan deserts and in the southern regions of Punjab. This soil is not suitable for the Indian agriculture but some agricultural activity is carried out for the irrigation. The crops grown in the desert soil are wheat, millets, maize, cotton, barley, and much more.

  • Marshy and Peaty soil

The Marshy and Peaty soil is another type of soil in India. This type of soil is formed in the region of humid in the souls. It covers the areas of heavy humidity and rainfall. These soils which are covered at the rainy season under the water and therefore it is utilized for paddy cultivation later. The soil color is black. It is extremely acidic in nature. This type of soil is mainly found in the western regions of Kottayam and Alappuzha district. The marshy soils are created due to water classification anaerobic conditions of the soil. This soil contains organic and iron matter in, unlike quantities.  Mostly the Marshy soils are found in the state of Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Orissa, West Bengal and some parts of Uttar Pradesh.

In India, there are different types of soils available. Each and every type of soils in India are discussed in the above section. Each type of soil is used for the different types of cultivation and crops.

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